When you use the Windows Recovery Console, you can obtain limited access to the NTFS file system, FAT, and FAT32 volumes without starting the Windows graphical user interface (GUI). In the Windows Recovery Console, you can perform the following actions:
· Use, copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders
· Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that you start your computer
· Repair the file system boot sector or the master boot record (MBR)
· Create and format partitions on drives
Note Only an administrator can obtain access to the Windows Recovery Console. This prevents unauthorized users from using any NTFS volume.
Option 1: If you have already installed the Recovery Console
If you have already installed the Recovery Console, you can select it during your usual Windows Startup. To run the Recovery Console:
1. During Startup, select Recovery Console from the startup options menu.
2. If you have a dual-boot or multiboot system, select the installation that you want to access from the Recovery Console.
3. When you are prompted, type the Administrator password.
4. At the command prompt, type Recovery Console commands, and then you can refer to the commands that are listed in the "Available commands within Windows Recovery Console" section.
5. At any time, you can type Help for a list of available commands.
6. At any time, you can type Help commandname for help on a specific command.For example, you can type help attrib to display the help on the attributes command.
7. At any time, you can exit Windows Recovery Console by typing Exit at the command line
Option 2: Starting the Windows Recovery Console from the Windows XP CD-ROM
If you have not preinstalled the Windows Recovery Console, you can start the computer and use the Recovery Console directly from your original Windows XP installation disc. If your computer is already in Windows and you want to add the Windows Recovery Console as a startup option, go to the next section "Adding the Windows Recovery Console as a startup option."
1. Insert the Windows XP CD into your CD drive and restart your computer. If you are prompted, select any options required to start (boot) from the CD.
2. When the text-based part of Setup begins, follow the prompts. Select the repair or recover option by pressing R.
3. If you have a dual-boot or multiboot system, select the installation that you want to access from the Recovery Console.
4. When you are prompted, type the Administrator password.
5. At the command prompt, type Recovery Console commands, and then you can refer to the commands that are listed in the "Available commands within Windows Recovery Console" section.
6. At any time, you can type Help for a list of available commands.
7. At any time, you can type Help commandname for help on a specific command. For example, you can type help attrib to display the help on the attributes command.
8. At any time, you can exit Windows Recovery Console by typing Exit at the command line.
Option 3: Adding the Windows Recovery Console as a startup option
If your computer starts Windows, you can add the Windows XP Recovery Console as a startup option from the Windows environment. To install the Recovery Console as a startup option, follow these steps:
1. With Windows running, insert the Windows CD into your CD drive.
2. Click Start and clickRun.
3. Type the following commands (where X: is the CD Drive letter), and then press ENTER on your keyboard.
Note There is a space before /cmdcons.
4. Click OK and follow the instructions to finish Setup.
Note This adds the Windows Recovery Console to the Windows Startup folder.
5. Restart your computer and select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems.
Important If you are using software mirroring, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
229077 Mirroring prevents pre-installing the Recovery Console
Restrictions and limitations of the Recovery Console
When you use the Windows Recovery Console, you can use only the following items:
· The root folder
· The %SystemRoot% folder and the subfolders of the Windows installation that you are currently logged on to
· The Cmdcons folder
· The removable media drives such as the CD drive or the DVD drive
Note If you try to access other folders, you may receive an "Access Denied" error message. This does not necessarily mean that data that is contained in those folders is lost or corrupted. It only means that the folder is unavailable while you are running the Windows Recovery Console. Also, when you are using the Windows Recovery Console, you cannot copy a file from the local hard disk to a floppy disk. However, you can copy a file from a floppy disk or from a CD-ROM to a hard disk, and you can copy a file from one hard disk to another hard disk.
Using the Command Console within Windows Recovery Console
The Recovery Console gives you limited access to the NTFS file system, FAT, and FAT32 volumes. Recovery Console prevents the familiar Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) from loading in order to repair and recover Windows functionality.
After you start the Windows Recovery Console, you receive the following message:
Microsoft Windows(R) Recovery Console
The Recovery Console provides system repair and recovery functionality.
Type EXIT to exit the Recovery Console and restart the computer.
Which Windows Installation would you like to log on to ?
(To cancel, press ENTER)
Enter the number for the appropriate Windows installation. In this example, you would press 1. Then, Windows prompts you to enter the Administrator account password.
Note If you use an incorrect password three times, the Windows Recovery Console closes. Also, if the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database is missing or damaged, you cannot use the Windows Recovery Console because you cannot be authenticated correctly. After you enter your password and the Windows Recovery Console starts, type Exit to restart the computer.
When you use Windows XP Professional, you can set group policies to enable automatic administrative logon. For more information about how to set Recovery Console to enable automatic administrative logon, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
312149 How to enable an administrator to log on automatically in Recovery Console
Available commands within Windows Recovery Console
The following commands are available within the Windows Recovery Console. The commands are not case-sensitive.
Warning Some of these commands can make your system inoperable. Read the whole explanation of any command before you enter it onto the command line. Seek the advice of a support professional if you have any questions or concerns about a particular command.
Use the help command to list all the following supported commands:
attrib del fixboot more set
batch delete fixmbr mkdir systemroot
bootcfg dir format more type
cd disable help net
chdir diskpart listsvc rd
chkdsk enable logon ren
cls exit map rename
copy expand md rmdir
- Resets an attribute
R Read-only file attribute
S System file attribute
H Hidden file attribute
C Compressed file attribute
You must set or clear at least one attribute.
To view attributes, use the dir command.
bootcfg /redirect [portbaudrate] | [useBiosSettings]
/rebuild Iterates through all Windows installations so that you can specify which installations to add.
/scan Scans all disks for Windows installations and displays the results so that you can specify which installations to add.
/default Sets the default boot entry.
/list Lists the entries already in the boot menu list.
/disableredirect Disables redirection in the boot loader.
/redirect Enables redirection in the boot loader, with the specified configuration.
Type cd drive: to display the current folder in the specified drive.
Type cd without parameters to display the current drive and folder.
You can use the following options:
/r Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.
When you run the chkdsk command, you must use the Autochk.exe file. CHKDSK automatically locates this file in the startup folder. If the Command Console was preinstalled, the startup folder is typically the Cmdcons folder. If CHKDSK cannot find Autochk.exe in the startup folder, CHKDSK tries to locate the Windows installation disc. If it cannot find the installation media, CHKDSK prompts you for the location of the Autochk.exe file.
The source of the file can be removable media, any folder in the system folders of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder.
If destination is unspecified, the default destination is the current folder. If the file already exists, you are prompted whether you want the copied file to overwrite the existing file. The destination cannot be removable media.
H Hidden file
S System file
R Read-only file
A Files ready for archiving
P Reparse point
Use the listsvc command to display all services or drivers that are eligible to be disabled. The disable command prints the old start type of the service before resetting the start type to SERVICE_DISABLED. Record the old start type if you must enable the service again.
The disable command displays the following start_type values:
/delete Deletes an existing partition.
device_name The name of the device that is used to create a new partition.
drive_name A drive-letter-based name, for example D:.
partition_name The partition-based name for deleting an existing partition size The size of the new partition in megabytes.
Warning If you use this command on a disk that has a dynamic disk configuration, you may damage the partition table. Do not modify the structure of dynamic disks unless you are using the Disk Management tool.
Use the listsvc command to display all eligible services or drivers to enable. The enable command prints the old start type of the service before it is reset to the new value. It is a good idea to note the old value, in case you have to restore the start type of the service.
Valid options for start_type are as follows:
You can use the following options:
/f:filespec Identifies the files to be expanded.
/d Do not expand; display only a directory of the files in the source.
The destination can be any folder in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in the root of the drive, in the local installation sources, or in the Cmdcons folder. The destination cannot be removable media, and the destination file cannot be read-only. Use the attrib command to remove the read-only attribute.
Unless you use the /y option, the expand command prompts you if the destination file already exists.
Warning This command can damage your partition tables if a virus is present or if a hardware problem exists. If you use this command, you may create inaccessible partitions. We recommend that you run antivirus software before you use this command.
You can obtain the device name from the output of the map command. If you do not specify a device name, the MBR of the boot device is repaired, for example:
The list is extracted from the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config\System hive. If the System hive is damaged or missing, the results are unpredictable.
Note You cannot specify a new drive or path for the renamed file. These commands work only in the system folders of the current Windows installation, in removable media, in the root folder of any hard disk partition, or in the local installation sources.
For more information about the Recovery Console, visit the following Microsoft Web site:
kbresolve kbenv kbinfo KB314058