Thursday, November 26, 2015
THE ROOT FILE SYSTEM
The /Directory (The root file system)
- Ø /bin: consists of commands that are used by both the system administrator as well as non-privileged users. This directory usually contains the shells like bash, csh etc. as well as much used commands like cp, mv, rm, cat, Is.
- Ø /sbin: Consists of commands that are specific to the system administrator.
- Ø /etc: Contains all the configuration files for your system.
- Ø /root: provides the home directory for the superuser. The superuser is the user who is login with the root account.
- Ø /lib: Consists of shared libraries needed by the programs on the rot file system.
- Ø /lib/modules: provides you with loadable kernel modules. Especially those that are needed to boot the system when recovering from disasters such as, network and filesystem driver.
- Ø /dev: contains device files.
- Ø /tmp: Refers to the temporary files. Programs running after botup should use /var/tmp.not/tmp because of its size. Often/tmp will be a symbolic link to /var/tmp.
- Ø /mnt:Regers to mount point for temporary mounts by the system administractor.
Using File System Commands
- Ø Is: Lists files and directories, which are present in Linus operating system as wll as those created by the user.
- Ø Cp: Use to copy files.
- Ø rm: Use to remove files.
- Ø Chown: use to change file ownership
- Ø Chgrp: use to change group permission
- Ø Chmod: use to change files and directory permission
Perform Basic File Management
i. Filesystem Objects
· A file is used to store data. System treats a file simply a sequence of bytes
· A directory is a collection of files and other directories
· Directories are organized in a hierarchy, with the root directory at the top
· The root directory is referred to as /
ii. Directory and File Names
· Files and directories are organized into a filesystem
· User can refer to files in directories and sub-directories by separating their names with/, for example:
Paths to files either start from / (absolute) symbol or from some current directory
iii. File Extensions
· A filename always has an extension, beginning with a dot.
· An extension indicates the type of the file.
· On Unix and Linux, file extensions are entirely a matter of converntion, the operating system itself ignores them.
· Only a few specific programs use extensions to identify the type of a file.