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Thursday, November 26, 2015


The /Directory (The root file system)
Figure 1
  • Ø /bin: consists of commands that are used by both the system administrator as well as non-privileged users.  This directory usually contains the shells like bash, csh etc. as well as much used commands like cp, mv, rm, cat, Is.
  • Ø /sbin: Consists of commands that are specific to the system administrator.
  • Ø /etc: Contains all the configuration files for your system.
  • Ø /root: provides the home directory for the superuser.  The superuser is the user who is login with the root account.
  • Ø /lib: Consists of shared libraries needed by the programs on the rot file system.
  • Ø /lib/modules: provides you with loadable kernel modules.  Especially those that are needed to boot the system when recovering from disasters such as, network and filesystem driver.
  • Ø /dev: contains device files.
  • Ø /tmp: Refers to the temporary files.  Programs running after botup should use /var/tmp.not/tmp because of its size. Often/tmp will be a symbolic link to /var/tmp.
  • Ø /mnt:Regers to mount point for temporary mounts by the system administractor.

Using File System Commands
  • Ø Is: Lists files and directories, which are present in Linus operating system as wll as those created by the user.
  • Ø Cp: Use to copy files.
  • Ø rm: Use to remove files.
  • Ø Chown: use to change file ownership
  • Ø Chgrp: use to change group permission
  • Ø Chmod: use to change files and directory permission

Perform Basic File Management
i.             Filesystem Objects
·        A file is used to store data.  System treats a file simply a sequence of bytes
·        A directory is a collection of files and other directories
·        Directories are organized in a hierarchy, with the root directory at the top
·        The root directory is referred to as /
ii.            Directory and File Names
·        Files and directories are organized into a filesystem
·        User can refer to files in directories and sub-directories by separating their names with/, for example:

        Paths to files either start from / (absolute) symbol or from some current directory
iii.          File Extensions
·        A filename always has an extension, beginning with a dot.
·        An extension indicates the type of the file.
·        On Unix and Linux, file extensions are entirely a matter of converntion, the operating system itself ignores them.

·        Only a few specific programs use extensions to identify the type of a file.


Basic File Extensions

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